Microsoft published a guide to compare specific features of Windows Server versions to understand the differences between the version you are running today and the latest version available from Microsoft: Windows Server 2016.
The feature guide can be found here.
In terms of performance and scalability, Windows Server 2016 has taken a giant step, offering 240 virtual processors and 12 TB RAM in a VM!
There was some confusion about maximum memory per VM as some websites showed a table with 16 TB per VM. Ben Armstrong, PM in the Hyper-V team confirmed that the correct value is 12 TB.